IPVM is a term used to describe surveillance equipment. It refers to video cameras networked through an internet protocol system. These cameras allow anyone to monitor an area and record activity in order to detect potential threats to security or valuables.
IP Cameras: A Quick History
The internet protocol camera (IP camera) has become quite the staple in modern video surveillance security systems. This is an updated machine, improved from analog closed-circuit television (CCTV) because IP cameras can both send and receive data through a computer network, over the internet. Essentially, all IP cameras are a type of webcam, but the term “IP camera” belongs exclusively to those webcams reserved specifically for use within video surveillance systems that a user can access directly over a network.
The First [Centralized] IP Camera
The first centralized IP camera was released in 1996. Developed by the engineering pair Martin Gren and Carl-Axel Alm, Axis Communications marketed the Axis Neteye camera as being directly accessible from any internet capable device. It is important to note, however that this is very different than the cameras we have now in that they do not live stream their data. Instead, IP cameras are limited to taking snapshots every time the data is accessed. Essentially, then, they were not known as “motion cameras” when they were first released.
The First [Decentralized] IP Camera
The first decentralized IP camera was released by Mobotix in 1999. This camera operated on the Linux operating system and was capable of recording and managing video functions as well as setting alarms. As such, operation of this camera did not require licensed video management software.
In addition, the first [Decentralized] IP Camera with built-in video content analytics (VCA) was released by Intellio in 2005. This camera continued to improve on the technology with better detection capabilities, as in whether an object was stolen or if a human crossed a line (to enter a specific zone), or if a car is moving the wrong way down a street.
IP Camera Video Standards
Early CCTV cameras relied on previously-established broadcast television formats. These include:
- Common Intermediate Format (CIF)
IP cameras using these formats differ from each other in their types and number of features and functions. They also have varying video encoding schemes and different network protocols and API for use by the many different types of video management software.